Veterinary Information and Resources

Anesthesia, Analgesia and Surgical Techniques

Research Animal Anesthesia, Analgesia and Surgery

Alison C. Smith and M. Michael Swindle

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare

7833 Walker Drive, Suite 340

Greenbelt, Md 20770

Library of Congress Number 94-68123

Formulary for Laboratory Animals

C. Terrance Hawk and Steven L. Leary

Iowa State University Press

Ames, Iowa 50014 

ISBN: 0-8138-2422-2

Animal Welfare Regulations

• Animal Welfare Act, 1995,9 CFR, Ch.1, Subchapter A – Animal Welfare (

• USDA Regulations (

• Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (

Alternatives to the Use of Animals

• Directory on Resources on Alternatives and Animal Use in Life Sciences (

Animal Welfare Information Center

Beltsville, Maryland

Resource Series No. 1

• Refinement and Reduction in Animal Testing (

Niemi, S.M., Willson, J.E., 1993

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare

Bethesda, Maryland

Ethical Use of Animals

  1. Rowan, A. N. Formulation of ethical standards for use of animals in medical research. Toxicology Letters 67:1-9, 1993.
  2. Cohen, C. The Case for the Use of Animals in Research. New England Journal of Medicine 315: 865-870, 1986.
  3. Tannenbaum, J. Animal Research, in Veterinary Ethics – Animal Welfare, Client Relations, Competition and Collegiality, 2nd ed., Duncan, L.L., Ed., Mosby-Year Book, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri, 1995, chap. 24.
  4. Orlans, F.B. Current Attitudes and Ethical Arguments, in In the Name of Science – Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation,1st ed., Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, New York, 1993, chap. 2.
  5.  Trull, F.L. The Research Movement, Lab Animal, 23-26, Apr 1994.
  6. Macrina, al. Use of Animals in Biomedical Experimentation, in Scientific Integrity, Macrina, F.L., Ed., ASM Press, Washington, D.C., 1995, chap. 5.
  7. Szymczyk, J. Animals, Vegetables and Minerals: I Love Animals, and Can Still Work With Them in a Research Laboratory, Newsweek, 10, Aug. 1995.
  8. Goodwin, F.K. Animal Rights: Medical Research and Product Testing: Is This a “Hang Together or Together We Hang” Issue?, Cont. Topics, 31, 6-11, Jan. 1992.
  9. Singer, P. Animal Experimentation: Philosophical Perspectives, in The Encyclopedia of Bioethics, Reich, W., Ed., Free Press, NY, 1978.
  10. Russow, L. M. Bioethics, Animals Research, and Ethical Theory. ILAR J 40:15-21, 1999.


The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia (

  1. Walshaw, S. O. Animal Death and Human Emotion in the Laboratory. Lab Animal, 23(6):24-29, 1994
  2. Pekow, C. A. Suggestions from Research Workers for Coping with Research Animal Death. Lab Animal, 23(10):28-29, 1994.

Housing and Husbandry

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

National Academy Press

500 Fifth Street, NW

Washington, DC 20001

International Standard Book Number 0-309-15400-6


Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research

Federation of Animal Science Societies

National Academy Press

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418